The Russians completely destabilized the US political system and skewed the vote of the American public in favour of Donald Trump. They used platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, who were also implicated in this massive fraud. How could the US be intimidated and coerced so easily? Actually the question should be how much of this story is made up and how much is truthful? A question that, unfortunately, we are unlikely to find the answer to.
The definition of the word propaganda is — information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view. Propaganda is a means of influencing people. Its principle goal is to persuade others to accept certain beliefs and ideas. Propaganda in modern times is now a more potent force than it has ever been. The dissemination of information via social media and the internet happens at warp speed and spreads like a virus. In addition to the methods of distribution, propaganda makes use of a number of tactics, many times used in tandem in order to gain the greatest impact. Here are a few examples:
Fear – A large number of psychological studies have found that humans will do more to avoid pain than they will to gain pleasure. We are hard wire with a fight or flight response which keeps us on our toes when fear is involved. It is therefore a potent propaganda technique. Just turn on the news and you will see the deliberate use of extreme ideas and symbols for the purpose of swaying opinion by causing deep, and at times irrational, fear.
Repetition – The classic brainwashing technique is to repeat an idea, word, or image over and over and over again until it becomes imprinted on the objects mind. When politicians focus on staying “on message,” meaning they repeat the same buzzwords and reinforce the same ideas in multiple public appearances and statements, they are using this technique. The media makes use of this technique. When Howard Dean was running for president he made a speech in Iowa where he yelled out “Yee Ha” to rally the crowd. This caused the death of his candidacy, as the media jumped on it and declared it unpresidential conduct. How did they persuade the public to accept this belief? According to the Hotline, a Washington-based newsletter, cable and broadcast news networks aired Dean’s Iowa exclamation 633 times (and that doesn’t include local news or talk shows in the four days after it was made).
The Common Folk – With the recent rise of populism in the US and Europe, appealing to the common folk has become a propaganda technique. The goal is to make viewers feel that they directly connect and can relate to the message or meaning of the propaganda. Mark Zuckerberg went on a cross-country tour to meet blue-collar folks and soccer moms. This of course began to fuel rumours that he was considering an eventual run for president. It was noted that Obama said the word “folks” at least 348 times during presidential news conferences.
The Band Wagon – We previously wrote about this (here) in reference to the Bitcoin explosion. The interest in cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin has fuelled the use of propaganda from both directions, for and against its use. The idea here is that everybody is adopting it so you should too. Often the word “we” is used heavily to imply that everyone is in a situation or group together.
Demonizing – By characterizing an enemy or opponent as evil, vile, or dangerous, propaganda can appeal to visceral feelings of fear, disgust, and repulsion. Exaggeration is required, and this technique is particularly necessary for any political “smear campaign.” Donald Trump used this technique effectively in his presidential campaign. He implanted the idea of a dangerous, deep state and evil Hillary Clinton in the minds of many voters. How could you tell? It was so effective that Clinton became recognized as “Crooked Hillary” by his voting base.
Paternalism – An individual’s need to feel protected and watched over is a perfect target for propaganda. For this reason, many governments will employ imagery and symbolism that evokes a sense of paternalism. The emphasis on a strong, fatherly authority is appealing to many consuming propaganda, making this technique extremely powerful in times of distress or crisis, such as in the use of Uncle Sam in military propaganda.
Victorious – Everyone wants to feel like a winner. If a piece of propaganda can paint a candidate or group’s victory as certain and inevitable, then the viewer will want to join the group. This is why you will often hear a plea to “join us now,” before it’s too late.
The Lie – This strategy requires an entire body of propaganda, usually across multiple mediums, and focuses on stirring up strong emotion by retelling or reorienting a major story or event to change people’s perception of the event. This technique ties together with other techniques like fear mongering, demonizing, and repetition. This is what we started the article with, “The Russian Conspiracy.” This story has been presented in loop from all angles, by a number of distribution methods for well over 18 months. Have you encountered it? Have you been influenced by the propaganda? Whether you accept it or not, you have certainly been coerced into forming an opinion based on information that may or may not be fact, without even being aware of doing it. Such is the power of propaganda.